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And the rose fell on the paw of Adolf // – Global Jewish Online Center

Our state is the dictatorship of evil ..

And the rose fell on the paw of Adolf

“We and our friends were so different – isn't that the wealth of mankind?! But it turned out that this is precisely the main danger to the nation, for the national idea. Somehow imperceptibly all of us were put under banners, taught to march, walk in construction, not object and think collectively. We loved Germany so much that we never asked ourselves questions, “why and why” we love our Motherland? With the advent of Hitler, they began to teach us and explain, “how” and “for which” we must love our homeland. ”

This is a diary entry Sophie Sholle – participants of the anti -fascist organization White Rose. Although it was not even an organization in the full sense of the word, but rather a group of like -minded people, which included five students of Munich University. Realizing the ugliness of fascist ideas, they tried to resist them, gently, without violence, simply convincing compatriots of the lowlands of promoted ideals. Their first leaflet was printed in June 1942. In 1943, they were all executed.

Sophie Sholle and her brother were the first victims, ascending to the scaffold on February 22, 1943, just three days after her detention. The Extraordinary Judicial Body of the Third Reich-the People’s Court-found them guilty of the state treason: For the call for the sabotage of military industry, condemnation of the national-socialist lifestyle, propaganda of amazing moods and the statement of the worst expressions about the Fuhrer. And if in Russia the activities of the “White Roses” are often associated for the most part with Alexander Shmorele – “Russian” by mother, born in Orenburg and emigrated to Germany, then in the West, the Nazis is considered to be the Nazis.

It is difficult to unequivocally determine the factor that contributed to such recognition, in addition to the fact that she became the only girl in the list of executed, not only without issuing any of the members of the group during interrogations, but also trying to take all the blame on themselves. They say that even the executioner, on whose account there were over three thousand executions, said that he did not see anyone who would meet his death as courageously as Sophie Shull. Perhaps the matter in documentary evidence left by the girl is amazing at the insight of her diary entries, which are largely echoing with the content of the leaflets of the “white rose”. Most likely, Sophie herself wrote all these leaflets. At least, it was exactly the text for the first leaflets, calling for everyone to resist the Hitler Adolf regime.

Sophie Sholle was born on May 9, 1921 in the German city of Foretenberg. Later, the family moved to Ulm. Her father Robert Sholle was a tax adviser. In the early 30s, he himself was fond of the ideas of “Great Germany”, but quite quickly realized that the political views and ideas of fascism were alien to him.Later he even visited Hitler’s criticism in an interview with his colleague. But, by the way, the children of the changes of the father’s views did not share for a long time. Both Sophie and Hans were passionate about the romance of the Hitler Youth: they participated in sports competitions, tourist trips and flows, dreamed of serving the Fatherland. Sophie, for example, from the age of 12, was in the Nazi Union of German girls, and by 1935 she received the position of a cell commander. According to the memoirs of peers, she was really “was fanatically devoted to National Socialism,” but this concerned mainly only the program of active pastime for young people. It is known, for example, that Sophie received the first reprimand in the movement for friendship with Jews, which she did not refuse even under pressure. Then she also wrote a complaint to the Office of the Union – “How is it that my Jewish friends were not allowed to one of the mass sports events?!”

Of course, his father tried to explain to the children the danger of the current political situation, but, as Sophie's sisters said, he never crushed them, wanting them to change their views. This moment came in 1935, when Nuremberg racial laws were adopted. To accept the infringement of the rights of some – for the consolation of the pride of others – Sophie, as well as her brothers and sisters, brought up on the principles of equality and Lutheran faith. Expressing her protest of the Nuremberg laws, Sophie decided to read the poems of Henry Heine at an event for members of the Union of German Girls. She was not given a poem to read the poem, interrupting the performance: Heine was banned by Goebbels back in 1933 – as the left and antimilitarian writer of Jewish nationality. In response to a proposal to repent of a sprayed court of honor, Sophie said: Who does not know Heine, he does not know German literature.

This ended her membership in the Union of German Girls and problems began. At first, at a school where Sophie did not hide her disappointment of the ruling party, and then in the Gestapo – for the first time Sophie, her sister Inga and the Hans and Werner brothers were arrested in 1937 on suspicion of participation in the anti -Nazi group. A search was arranged in their house. Sophie then barely turned 16, so she was released on the same day, and the older brothers and sister spent almost a month in prison.

Soon the Second World War began, having learned about which, the first thing Sholle said: I hope Hitler will definitely stop. In 1942, Sophie entered the study of philosophy at the University of Munich, where her brother Hans had already studied at the medical. After the first year, in May of the 40th, he was sent to the front to the front: together with the German army, he visited France, Belgium and Poland and personally saw the cruelty of the SS soldiers in relation to the civilian population. There he met another medical student-Alexander Shmorele. Upon returning to Munich, they decided to fight the Nazi regime together.So the White Rose appeared, whose backbone, in addition to them, was soon compiled by the sister of Hans Sophie, as well as medical students Christoph Probst and Willy Graf. Later, Professor Kurt Hubert, who taught philosophy at the University, joined them.

“Isn't every honest German every honest German today? – asked the guys in the first sheet of the White Rose. – There is no greater dishonor for the cultural nation than without resistance to submit to the authorities of irresponsible and dark forces. A shame will fall on us and our children, when a veil falls from the eyes of people and the terrible and numerous crimes of the ruling regime will open. ”

Printing and multiplying on hectographs of leaflets, the members of the group threw them into the mailboxes, sent them in German cities with mail, scattered houses from the roofs. Wanting to reveal to the Germans an eye on what is happening and weaken the Nazi regime, members of the White Rose described specific crimes of the regime – both within the country and beyond. In particular, they became the first and, possibly, the only from the German resistance who declared the presence of concentration camps in the captured territories and the mass destruction of Jews. Already after the detention, at the investigator’s interrogation, responding to the proposal to repent of his deed, Sophie Sholle will say: “To whom should I repent? Before you? For which people are cattle? You destroyed 300 thousand Polish Jews, sending each Jewish boy aged 15 to 20 years to concentration camps and forced labor, and you send Jewish girls to serve German brotheles SS. You will repent forever. Shame and retribution will fall on your heads. ”

“Our current“ state ”is the dictatorship of evil. To eliminate it is not only your right, but also your direct moral duty, ”said another leaflet calling for a meaningful bloodshed on the battlefields. Every morning in different parts of Munich, utilities painted the inscriptions Down with Hitler! And “everyone is worthy of freedom,” which the “white rose” left paint on the walls of the buildings.

Despite the absence of at least many significant principles of conspiracy, the participants of the White Rose for a long time managed to remain unsolved. The failure occurred on February 17, 1943, when Hans and Sophie Sholle laid out the next batch of leaflets in the university audiences. They were noticed by the guard who called the Gestapo. In that leaflet, students called on the Germans to say goodbye to militarism and free themselves from the executioners, otherwise sooner or later they have to experience what the Jewish population of the country is subjected to.

A copy of this leaflet hit the UK and at the end of 1943 was dropped by British bombers over German cities in a circulation of hundreds of thousands of copies. The title read: Manifesto of Munich students. All participants in the White Rose were already executed by that time.

Sophie's sentence was executed immediately after the end of the trial on February 22, 1943. She turned 21 years old. In the courtroom, in response to angry cries against her, the girl said: “I still believe that I did the best of everything that I could do right now for my people. I am not remorseful for my actions and I am ready for the consequences. Someone had to start. What we have said and written is what many people think. They just don't dare to say it out loud. And you… You lost the war. But you are so cowardly that you are afraid to admit it.”